Sunday, May 17, 2015

JR Newsletter: 17 May 2015 (241)



We start this week with a response to Winston's Zack's inquiry about the "office boy" reverse.
James Higby wrote:

Winston Zack:  Back in 1949 William Sheldon, in his Early American Cents,  used the term "office boy" to refer to reverse Z of a 1794 large cent, S-56.  The reverse features multiple blunders and anomalies.  I cannot confirm that his was the first use of the term, however.

James Higby
------

Brad Karoleff wrote:

Everyone should have received their latest issue of The John Reich Journal by now.  If your has not arrived please notify me via email at bkaroleff(at)yahoo.com and I will send a replacement as soon as possible.

We are also still looking for submissions for the pre-ANA issue of the journal.  We plan on publishing in early July if all goes well.  If you are working on an article I would love to have it by June 15th. We still need a couple submissions to fill out the issue so please consider sending something to me soon.

Brad
------

Ron Guth wrote:

JR Newsletter readers might be interested to know that we have been working on Condition Census listings for all of the pre-1838 early American coins, all denominations on the PCGS CoinFacts website.  We've integrated most, if not all, of coins that we have graded so far from the Pogue, Link, Friend, Missouri Cabinet, Miller, and the many other collections we've graded in recent years.  This is a beginning and a work-in-progress, so the results will be spotty, but in many instances the results are pretty significant as a tool for collectors.  Whenever possible, auction appearances have been matched or re-united, grades have been updated, and images have been added from our True-View database.  I'm having a great time working on this project.  There are some great coins out there, and because of PCGS's position in the industry, we see a lot of them.

PCGS CoinFacts is available on a subscription basis of $14.99 per month, and we offer a free 10-day trial at https://www.pcgs.com/store/join.aspx

I invite JR Newsletter readers to try it out and let me know what they think.  We're always looking for constructive input.

Thanks and best wishes,

Ron Guth
President
PCGS CoinFacts - the Internet Encyclopedia of U.S. Coins
www.PCGSCoinFacts.com
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From Peter Mosiondz, Jr:

United States Early Half Dollar Die Varieties 1794-1836 (5th edition Overton - 2014), Don L. Parsley. This new edition is printed on a white-coated paper that will increase the ability to see detail on the coins. In addition, photographs are included for many of the listed die states as well. Rarities are included for every die marriage. The rarity ratings are revised from the fourth edition to reflect new values based upon knowledge gleaned from the past nine years since publication of the fourth edition. Also, the condition census is updated in this new edition. 701 pp. HB. DJ protected in Brodart Mylar®. New. One copy for sale at $55.00 postpaid.

Peter Mosiondz, Jr.
26 Cameron Circle
Laurel Springs, NJ 08021-4861
Phone: 856-627-6865
Email: choochoopete(at)comcast.net
JRCS 867




Sunday, May 10, 2015

JR Newsletter: 10 May 2015 (240)

A final reminder for collectors of half dimes starts us off this week:

Please email your complete inventory listing (including all duplicates and die states) of all your 1792 Half Disme, Draped Bust, Flowing Hair and Capped Bust half dimes to Stephen Crain at: mrhalfdime(at)aol.com

Or mail hard copies to:

Stephen A. Crain
P. O. Box 1680
Windham, ME 04062

Please include all of your cud examples, as well, as we are responding to collector demand to include this information.

Please respond by
May 15, 2015 to ensure inclusion of your collection in this census. This is a hard cut-off date – no exceptions, since the completed census must appear in the pre-ANA John Reich Journal.
Thank you,
Steve
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John Okerson wrote that he is near completion of his set of JR Journals, but needs some help:
Trying to complete my collection of John Reich Journal issues – I need Volume 4 #3, Volume 5 #3 and Volume 17 #1.
------
David Finkelstein provided the following original article, "David Ott's Account of Gold -- Part 3"
 
David Ott’s Account of Gold – Part 3
By David Finkelstein


The officers that were fiscally and legally responsible for the precious metals and coins within the Mint were the Treasurer of the Mint, the Assayer, the Melter & Refiner and the Chief Coiner.  Since bullion and coins were transferred from the custody of one of these officers to the custody of another of these officers, each of these officers was required to post a surety bond and be bound to the United States of America.  The Director of the Mint, who was the chief executive officer of the Mint, was not required to post a surety bond, as he never took custody of any bullion or coins.

The Workflow While David Ott Was Employed

David Ott was the Mint’s first Melter & Refiner Pro Tem.  He was never nominated by President Washington for the position of Melter & Refiner.  In addition, I have been unable to locate any document or reference indicating that he posted his surety bond.  It is logical to conclude this because no entries were ever made in the Waste Book or Bullion Journal during his tenure that identified him as an officer in a bullion transfer.  Instead, the entries identified that the bullion deposits that he melted and refined were done so while the bullion was in the custody of the Chief Coiner.

Per the Bullion Journal, the first four gold deposits were transferred from the custody of the Treasurer of the Mint to the custody of the Chief Coiner on July 21, 1795.  See Figure 1.  According to David Ott’s Account of Gold, he received the gold bullion from the first four gold bullion deposits on July 21st and July 22nd.  See Figure 2.  He then provided one ingot to the Chief Coiner on July 21st for an experiment, and the remaining 6 ingots to the Chief Coiner on July 23rd (refer to my article titled David Ott’s Account of Gold – Part 1).  See Figure 3.

David Ott wrote in his ledger that the gold bullion was “Received from the Treasury”.  See Figure 2.  Although the bullion may have been physically moved from the Treasurer of the Mint’s vault (that was shared with the Assayer) to the Chief Coiner’s vault (that was shared with the Melter & Refiner), the bullion was legally transferred from the custody of the Treasurer of the Mint to the custody of the Chief Coiner, then provided to the Melter & Refiner Pro Tem by the Chief Coiner.

The Workflow After David Ott Resigned

Per page 23 of “Orders and directions for conducting the Mint of the United States, established by Elias Boudinot, director of said mint. November 2, 1795” the Melter & Refiner:

Is to receive all bullion after it is assayed, with a copy of the assayer’s report, from the Treasurer of the Mint, and cause the same without delay, to be melted and refined according to the standard of the United States, and cast into bars in the order in which it is delivered to him unless otherwise specifically directed.  As soon as this duty is executed he is to return the same to the Treasurer, to remain ready for coinage.

While David Ott was employed as Melter & Refiner Pro Tem, the workflow was adjusted and did not match the Melter & Refiner section of Elias Boudinot’s publication.  David Ott resigned in early November, 1796.  Joseph Cloud was immediately hired as Melter & Refiner Pro Tem and did post his surety bond.  The Mint’s workflow was adjusted again, this time matching the Melter & Refiner section of Elias Boudinot’s publication.  On November 9, 1796, Melter & Refiner warrant 1 was issued to transfer gold bullion deposits 55, 56 and 57 from the custody of the Treasurer of the Mint to the custody of the Melter & Refiner Pro Tem.  See Figure 4.

Joseph Cloud was nominated as the first Melter & Refiner of the Mint by President Washington on December 30, 1796.  His nomination was approved by the Senate on January 2, 1797.  Joseph Cloud served as Melter & Refiner until January 11, 1836.

To be continued…





Figure 1 – Bullion Journal Entries Dated 21-Jul-1795
Gold Deposits Transferred From the Treasurer of the Mint
to the Chief Coiner





Figure 2 – David Ott’s Entries For Gold Received on
21-Jul-1795 and 22-Jul-1795






Figure 3 – David Ott’s Entries For Gold Ingots Delivered on
21-Jul-1795 and 23-Jul-1795







Figure 4 – Bullion Journal Entry Dated 9-Nov-1796
 Melter & Refiner Gold Bullion Warrant 1

------

The final contribution comes from Winston Zack:
 
Does anyone know the etymology (origins) of the nickname 'Office-Boy' reverse for the 1820 JR-2 bust dime? Apparently Breen used it in his encyclopedia, but is there an earlier reference?

Do we know if there was, and who the so-called 'apprentice' was who likely made this die!? Are there any mint records of mint employees at this time which could potentially answer this question?

Thanks very much,
Winston

Sunday, May 3, 2015

JR Newsletter: 3 May 2015 (239)



This week, we have two original contributions to the JR Newsletter, plus a reminder about nominations for the JRCS Hall of Fame.

Sheridan Downey wrote:

Last week no one reported on the sale of Robert Hilt, Jr.'s bust halves.  All eyes were on the 1794 O.109 after it was run up to $600,000 by a pair of Internet bidders several days before the auction.  There was, of course, no further bidding.  The hammer price stood, yielding $705,000 with the 17.5% buyer's fee.

Reliable sources at Heritage indicated that the bidders were somewhat unpredictable "trophy hunters," each with a habit of entering back-breaking bids with the expectation of acquiring the trophy and receiving a significant reduction in price.  This time one of them got caught.  Neither bidder is devoted to die variety collecting; so the price must be treated as an aberration that will not influence prices on prices on future offerings of rare die marriages.  The prices for Hilt's 1794 O.108 and 1795 O.101 confirm this thinking.

Best,
Sheridan

------

David Finkelstein wrote an article for us, "David Ott’s Account of Gold – Part 2"

His article is below:
 

David Ott’s Account of Gold – Part 2
By David Finkelstein


David Ott’s Account of Gold identifies when “clippings” were received from the Chief Coiner, melted into new ingots and delivered back to the Chief Coiner.  See Figures 1 and 2.  Clippings were the unused gold from previously made ingots.  They included shavings from the planchets after they were adjusted, and the remainder of the sheet after the planchets were cut out of them.  See Figure 3.

Since the clippings already contained the required gold and silver/copper alloy mix as mandated by the Mint & Coinage Act of April 2, 1792, they simply needed to be melted and poured into ingots.  Per the entries in David Ott’s Account of Gold, the clippings were usually melted into new ingots and delivered back to the Chief Coiner on the same day they were received.  In some cases, the clippings received were not enough for one ingot, and receipt of additional clippings were required before an ingot could be created.


Ingot Weight

Beginning July, 1795, the average weight of a melted and refined gold ingot was approximately 34 +/- 5 Troy ounces.  During September, 1795, the average weight increased to approximately 55 +/- 5 Troy ounces.  Then, in June, 1796, the average weight was reduced back to approximately 34 +/- 5 Troy ounces.  A cursory analysis of David Ott’s ledger has determined that the lighter weight ingots resulted in less unused gold (or clippings) than the heavier ingots.

Not only did the United States Mint experiment with the number of obverse stars to the left and right, the size, pattern type and number of stars above the eagle’s head, and the number of arrows in the eagle’s claw, they also experimented with ingot weight.

To be continued…


 

Figure 1 – David Ott’s Account of Gold: Page 11 – Clippings Received




 Figure 2 – David Ott’s Account of Gold: Page 12 – Ingots Returned




Figure 3 –Unused Part of Punched Out Sheet (Clippings)



------

Finally, a reminder:

Nominations for the JRCS Hall of Fame class of 2015 are now OPEN. However, the nomination period will close this month to allow the Hall of Fame Committee sufficient time to consider each nominee and select this year's honorees.

The membership is encouraged to send nominations for the Hall of Fame. You can nominate candidates for either the veteran (those who contributed before the advent of JRCS) or the modern (those who have been members of JRCS) categories. Please include any pertinent information about the nominee that you feel necessary. Nominees will then be voted on by the HOF committee and the inductees will be announced at the annual meeting at the ANA convention in the summer.

Please forward your nominations to me at jrnewsletter(at)jrcs.org or to Brad Karoleff at bkaroleff(at)yahoo.com

Thank you,
Richard Meaney



Sunday, April 26, 2015

JR Newsletter: 26 April 2015 (238)

David Finkelstein is this week's only contributor to the JR Newsletter:

A clarification is required regarding my most recent article in the JRJ titled “How The Mint Act of 1792 Prevented The Deposit of Bullion & The Striking Of Silver & Gold Coins”.  My article focused on the circulating or business strike coinage that resulted from bullion deposits made with the Treasurer of the Mint.  The pattern silver coinage dated 1792 that was struck under the umbrellas and/or watching eyes of President George Washington and Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson is outside the scope of my article.
 
David

Sunday, April 19, 2015

JR Newsletter: 19 April 2015 (237)



This week's issue of the JR Newsletter starts with a reminder for those of you who have one or more early half dimes in your collection.

Steve Crain wrote:

Half dime census information is now being solicited from all JRCS members for inclusion in the July pre-ANA issue of the John Reich Journal.

Please email your complete inventory listing (including all duplicates and die states) of all your 1792 Half Disme, Draped Bust, Flowing Hair and Capped Bust half dimes to Stephen Crain at: mrhalfdime(at)aol.com

Or mail hard copies to:

Stephen A. Crain
P. O. Box 1680
Windham, ME 04062

Please include all of your cud examples, as well, as we are responding to collector demand to include this information.

Please respond before
May 15, 2015 to ensure inclusion of your collection in this census. This is a hard cut-off date – no exceptions, since the completed census must appear in the pre-ANA John Reich Journal.

Thank you,
Steve
------

We also received some good news from Brad Karoleff:

The latest issue of the John Reich Journal was mailed today (Saturday)!  I will be attending the Central States show next week at table 1400. Please stop by and say hello.

Anyone not receiving their John Reich Journal by next Friday please let me know at bkaroleff(at)yahoo.com

Happy hunting

Brad Karoleff
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Winston Zack wrote with a research request:

Does anyone have a comprehensive list of pre-seated Mint Delivery Warrants? After searching through old JR Newsletters I see that David Finkelstein was/is compiling a comprehensive/complete list of early Delivery Warrants.

Specifically, I am looking for delivery warrants from 1836 and 1837...the transition years from hand-powered coining operations to steam-powered coinage production.

Please feel free to email me:  stoneman101(at)gmail.com with any information you have and are willing to share. I would greatly appreciate it.

Thanks,
Winston
------

Speaking of David Finkelstein…

David Finkelstein wrote with an original article, "David Ott’s Account of Gold – Part 1" – which is below:




David Ott’s Account of Gold – Part 1
By David Finkelstein


David Ott first appeared on a Mint warrant when he was paid $24.17 on January 7, 1793 for “assaying coins at the Mint”.  His temporary assaying work was done in response to the following House of Representatives motion of November 29, 1792:

“Resolved, That that the President of the United States be requested to cause assays and other proper experiments to be made, at the Mint of the United States, of the gold and silver coins of France, England, Spain, and Portugal; and a report of the quantity of fine metal, and of alloy, in each of the denominations of the coins, to be laid before this House”.

President George Washington forwarded the request down to Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson, who forwarded the request down to Director of the Mint David Rittenhouse.  Rittenhouse contracted David Ott to perform the assays of the foreign gold and silver coins.  On January 7, 1793, David Rittenhouse forwarded the assay report up to Thomas Jefferson, who forwarded the report up to George Washington, who forwarded the report to the House of Representatives.  The report was then used as background material for the Act Regulating Foreign Coins of February 9, 1793.

David Ott next appeared on a Mint warrant when he was paid $133.33 on February 20, 1795 as a Mint employee for “53 days work at melting and refining in the Mint” from November 1, 1794 to December 31, 1794.  The Mint & Coinage Act of April 2, 1792 failed to define the position of Melter & Refiner.  As a result, silver and gold deposits could not be “legally” melted and refined into ingots with the precious metal and alloy percentages that were mandated by Congress.  Without melted and refined ingots, the ingots could not be rolled into sheets, the sheets could not be punched into planchets, and the planchets could not be struck into coins.  On March 3, 1795, President Washington signed the Supplementation of the Mint Act.  This act defined the position of Melter & Refiner.  It also allowed the Director of the Mint to employ a Melter & Refiner Pro Tem until one could be nominated by the President and approved by the Senate.  David Ott was the Mint’s first Melter & Refiner Pro Tem.


The First Gold Bullion Deposits

One of the Mint ledgers stored at the National Archives and Records Administration is David Ott’s Account of Gold (see Figure 1).  One part of his ledger identifies when gold bullion deposits were received from the Treasurer of the Mint, and when melted and refined ingots were delivered to the Chief Coiner (see Figures 2 and 3).

Gold bullion (in any shape or form) was first deposited with the Treasurer of the Mint.  After the deposit was assayed and the equivalent value in United States money was calculated, the deposit was provided to the Melter and Refiner Pro Tem or the Melter and Refiner.  [Although not germane to this article, it should be noted that the silver deposits that were melted and refined prior to the Supplementation of the Mint Act were illegally done so by Assayer Albion Cox (and most likely with the help of David Ott) as directed by David Rittenhouse.]

The first gold bullion deposit was received by Treasurer of the Mint Dr. Nicholas Way on February 12, 1795.  The total (or gross weight) of the deposit was 130 Troy ounces 4 pennyweights (or dwt) 9 grains.  After the deposit was assayed, it was determined that after it would be melted and refined, it would weigh (or have a standard weight of) 128 Troy ounces 0 dwt 18 grains, and have a value of $2,276.22.  See Figure 4.

The gross weight of the first 4 gold bullion deposits was 234 Troy ounces 0 dwt 13 grains (see Figure 4).  Note that there are 20 pennyweights per Troy ounce and 24 grains per pennyweight.  The gross weight of the first two entries made in David Ott’s Account of Gold total 234 Troy ounces 5 dwt 0 grains (see Figure 2).  It is therefore logical to conclude that the first 4 gold bullion deposits, that were deposited with Dr. Nicholas Way on February 12th, March 24th, May 18th and May 22nd, 1795, were transferred from Dr. Way to David Ott on July 21st and July 22nd, 1795.

An Experiment Was Conducted

Before gold coins could be struck, the gold bullion had to be melted and the existing alloys and impurities had to be removed.  Then, copper and silver had to be added such that the resultant mixture complied with the Mint & Coinage Act and was 11/12ths gold and 1/12th silver / copper alloy.  Next, the molten mixture had to be poured into ingots.  After the ingots cooled, they were to be transferred to the custody of Chief Coiner Henry Voigt.  He would then be responsible for having the employees in his department roll the ingots into sheets, punch planchets out of the sheets, adjust each planchet to the appropriate weight (if it was too heavy), then strike gold coins.

Prior to July 21, 1795, no gold coins were ever struck by the United State Mint.  On July 21, 1795, shortly after the first transfer of gold bullion took place between Dr. Nicholas Way and David Ott, 16 Troy ounces 10 dwt 12 grains in gold, “before it was melted”, was provided to Chief Coiner Henry Voigt “for an experiment” (see Figure 3).  Note that Moses Brown’s deposit consisted of ingots (see Figure 5).  Most likely, a gold ingot from Moses Brown’s deposit was provided to Henry Voigt to confirm that it could be rolled into a sheet of the desired thickness, and that planchets could be properly punched out of the sheet using the Mint’s existing equipment

The experiment was obviously successful, and gold coinage production began.  The gold bullion from the first four deposits was melted and refined, and 6 ingots, weighing 204 Troy ounces 15 dwt 5 grains, were delivered to Henry Voigt on July 23, 1795 (see Figure 3).  On July 31st, 744 Gold Half Eagles (valued at $3,720) were transferred from Chief Coiner Henry Voigt to Treasurer of the Mint Dr. Nicholas Way via the Mint’s first gold delivery warrant.  See Figure 6.  To be continued…


 
Figure 1 – David Ott’s Account of Gold



Figure 2 – David Ott’s Account of Gold: Page 1




Figure 3 – David Ott’s Account of Gold: Page 2





Figure 4 – Register of Gold Deposits: Deposits 1 - 5







Figure 5 – Register of Gold Bullion: Deposits 1 - 5



Figure 6 – First Gold Coin Delivery Warrant: 31-JUL-1795


------

Finally, a reminder from Richard Meaney:

Nominations for the JRCS Hall of Fame class of 2015 are now OPEN. However, the nomination period will close soon to allow the Hall of Fame Committee sufficient time to consider each nominee and select this year's honorees.

The membership is encouraged to send nominations for the Hall of Fame. You can nominate candidates for either the veteran (those who contributed before the advent of JRCS) or the modern (those who have been members of JRCS) categories. Please include any pertinent information about the nominee that you feel necessary. Nominees will then be voted on by the HOF committee and the inductees will be announced at the annual meeting at the ANA convention in the summer.

Please forward your nominations to me at jrnewsletter(at)jrcs.org or to Brad Karoleff at bkaroleff(at)yahoo.com

Thank you,
Richard

Sunday, April 12, 2015

JR Newsletter: 12 April 2015 (236)



Ron Guth wrote with this week's first contribution:

Thank you, David Finkelstein, for the articles you have been contributing to the JR Newsletter.  They are a superb synthesis of early U.S. Mint history.  I look forward to each installment.
Ron Guth
------

Next, a JRCS get-together opportunity from Gawain O'Connor:

The JRCS meeting at Portland was a lot of fun. If members in the Northwest would like to meet again, I can arrange a meeting at the Pacific Northwest Numismatic Association convention on May 2 in Tukwila (Seattle area). Perhaps for an informal discussion in the aftermath of the Hilt collection sale.

Gawain O'Connor
------

The final contribution for the week is this announcement from Steve Herrman:

Available Now - Complete Edition of Auction & Mail Bid Prices Realized for Bust Half Dollars 1794-1839 (Spring 2015 revision)

Distributed as a searchable PDF format file on CD-ROM. The Complete Edition of the AMBPR includes two complete, sorted and formatted listings of the more than 51,700 records in the AMBPR database.

R3+ to R8 die varieties, overdates & other popular varieties, proofs, mint errors & patterns, countermarks, contemporary counterfeits, and condition census specimens are listed for most major auctions held since 1984!

  -- Full listing in order by Die Variety Number
  -- Full listing in order by Sale & Lot Number

Distributed via CD-ROM, 1,782 pages, $50.00 postpaid.
$5.00 shall be donated to the JRCS for each copy sold.
Please contact Steve at Herrman102(at)aol.com

Note: This is a once in every 5 years publication. Requires Adobe Reader for Windows OS or Mac OS.

Available Soon - Auction Prices Realized for Certified & Graded Bust Half Dollars 1794-1839 (Summer 2015 revision)

Distributed as a softbound copy or in PDF file format, the APRCG contains a listing of all certified and graded Bust half dollars sold in major auctions during the last three years (June 2012 through May 2015).

Softbound copy is $25.00 postpaid. Softbound copy plus PDF file is $30.00 postpaid. PDF file by itself is $20.00.  Regular subscribers and pre-orders (prior to June 6) shall receive a $3.00 discount.  $1.00 shall be donated to both the BHNC and the JRCS for each copy sold.
Please contact Steve at Herrman102(at)aol.com

Note: This is an annual publication. PDF file requires Adobe Reader for Windows OS or Mac OS.

Steve

Sunday, April 5, 2015

JR Newsletter: 5 April 2015 (235)



We have another excellent issue of the JR Newsletter.  Steve Crain starts us off.

Steve Crain wrote:

Half Dime Census:

Your Half dime census information is now being solicited for inclusion in the July pre-ANA issue of the John Reich Journal.

Please email your complete inventory listing (including all duplicates and die states) of all your 1792, Draped Bust, Flowing Hair and Capped Bust half dimes to:

Stephen Crain at:  mrhalfdime(at)aol.com

Or mail hard copies to:

Stephen A. Crain
P. O. Box 1680
Windham, ME 04062

Please include all of your cud examples as well, as we are responding to collector demand to include this information.

Please respond before May 15, 2015 to ensure inclusion of your collection in this census. This is a hard cut-off date – no exceptions.  The completed census must appear in the pre-ANA John Reich Journal.
------

Regarding the Mohawk Valley Hoard, Bryce Brown wrote:

In case anyone asks more about the "Mohawk Valley Hoard", a good number of the coins were sold in the Coin Galleries auction sale of 3/11/2009.

Best regards,
Bryce
------

David Finkelstein shared his latest research piece, "Treasurer of the Mint Receipts For Copper Coins."  



Treasurer of the Mint Receipts For Copper Coins
By David Finkelstein

Audit trails of the silver and gold coins that were transferred from the custody of the Chief Coiner to the custody of the Treasurer of the Mint were logged in three Mint ledgers;  the Waste Book, the Bullion Journal, and the Gold Account Book.  Although the Silver Account Book has never been located within the Mint holdings at the National Archives and Records Administration, researchers have assumed that this 4th ledger existed and contained audit trails of the silver coin deliveries.

Audit trails of the copper coins that were transferred from the custody of the Chief Coiner to the custody of the Treasurer of the Mint were also logged in three Mint ledgers; the Waste Book, the Bullion Journal, and the Copper Account Book.  Although copper coinage production began in 1793, copper coin deliveries were not logged in these three ledgers until Q1 1796.

The Mint utilized a fourth ledger that logged the copper coins that were transferred from the custody of the Chief Coiner to the custody of the Treasurer of the Mint.  This ledger began with the first copper coin delivery dated March 1, 1793 and is titled “The Treasurer of the Mint Receipts For Copper Coins” (or TRCC).  See Figure 1.  Each entry was written and signed by either the Treasurer of the Mint (see Figure 2) or the Treasurer’s Clerk (see Figure 3).

Copper delivery warrants were issued, as required, by the Director of the Mint.  Beginning in 1796, each warrant was logged in the Waste Book, Bullion Journal and Copper Account Book.  The copper coin deliveries in these three ledgers match each other.  Copper coin deliveries entered in the TRCC were done differently than in the three previously mentioned ledgers.  When an entry was made in the TRCC, it was usually for all copper deliveries that occurred during the respective quarter.  For example: per Figure 4, copper delivery warrant 3 was dated October 14, 1796 and was for 1,390 Half Cents and 16,675 Cents.  Copper delivery warrant 4 was also dated October 14, 1796 and was for 346,700 Cents.  Although there were two entries in the Copper Account Book (as well as the Waste Book and Bullion Journal) because there were two separate delivery warrants issued, there was only one entry in the TRCC.  Per Figure 3, the totals for copper delivery warrants 3 and 4 were entered in the TRCC on December 31, 1796 as “received from Henry Voigt Chief Coiner of the Mint in the quarter ending this day”: 1,390 Half Cents and 363,375 Cents.

Entries in the TRCC provide handwriting examples of Treasurer of the Mint Tristram Dalton, Dr. Nicholas Way, and Dr. Benjamin Rush, as well as Treasurer Clerk Isaac Childs, Nathan Thomas, and George Ehrenzeller.  Combined with the Mint payroll records for the officers and clerks, it may be possible to identify who made the entries in the Waste Book, Bullion Journal, Copper Account Book, Gold Account Book, and by deduction, the Silver Account Book.

To be continued…


Figure 1 – The Treasurer of the Mint Receipts for Copper Coins



Figure 2 – 1-Mar-1793 & 2-Mar-1793 TRCC Entries
Made by Treasurer of the Mint Tristram Dalton



Figure 3 – 31-Dec-1796 TRCC Entry Made by Treasurer’s Clerk
Nathan Thomas on Behalf of Treasurer of the Mint Dr. Nicholas Way



Figure 4 – Copper Account Book – Q4 1796